Something to consider in terms of the Earth’s available resources

If the history of the universe from the Big Bang to present (13.799 billion years ago) were summarised into a one-year calendar, where the big bang occurred at the stroke of midnight on New Year’s Day, and present day (right this very moment) is the chime of midnight on New Year’s Eve (12 months later) then…

Earth and the solar system formed in early September, 4.6 billion years to present (or 4 months ago on this scale)

October saw oxygen formed from the photosynthesis of plants.

November brought with it the first cellular life.



21st  December – insects arrived

22nd December – Amphibians – peat, oil, coal and gas begin to form (340 million years of forming or 9 days ago on this scale)

23rd December – Reptiles

Christmas Day – Dinosaurs arrive (230 million years from present or 6 days ago on this scale)

Boxing day – The first Mammals

27th December – Birds

28th December – Flowers

30th December – Extinction of the Dinosaurs (having lived successfully on earth for 165 million years. They died out around 65 million years ago – or yesterday on this scale)


31st December (today): The dawn of the apes:

20:00 Humanity splits from Chimpanzees. (6.3 million years from present or 4 hours ago, on this scale)

21:25 First Human Ancestors start to walk upright. (4 million years ago) – ‘Lucy‘ skeleton – Ethiopia 3.2 million years old

23:03 Homo Erectus (first true humans) (1.8 million years from present or 57 minutes ago, on this scale)

23:52 Modern humans evolve (210,000 year ago) – Atmosphere’s carbon levels have remained steady at 200 to a maximum of 300 ppm for 800,000 years (or the last 30 minutes)

23:56 to 23:59 Mass Human Migration. (From 105,000 years ago or 4 minutes on this scale)


Final Minute (60 seconds) of the final day (31st December):

45 seconds to now: Last ice age ends (19,700 years ago)

30 seconds to now: Agriculture begins (13,140 years ago)

9 seconds to now: Egyptian Kingdom (4,500 years ago)

5 seconds to now: Roman Empire and birth of Jesus Christ (2,000 years ago)

1.2 second to now: Columbus reaches the Americas (527 years ago)

Half a second to now: Industrial Revolution begins in the UK (260 years ago)

0.005 seconds from now, atmospheric CO2 levels exceed 400 ppm (2015) for the first time in 800,000 years.

(Right now in mid 2019 this figure is over 415 ppm).


The last 10 seconds (5,000 years) mark every known and written about human endeavour, every monarch, battle or major empire we have ever studied is contained within this short period.

In the 260 years (half a second) since the industrial revolution in England, humanity has consumed more than half of the world’s fossil fuel resources that took 340 million years (9 days) to create.

How we react to, and address this now will impact directly on how our children experience the world.

Contact us to discuss how we can assist your company to reduce its impact on resources and the environment and reduce your costs.


Image and concept courtesy of the late great Carl Sagan, the Cosmic Calendar, Cosmos 1977 revised 2016.

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